• Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
  • Ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different perspectives and cultural backgrounds.
  • Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.
  • Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation.
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
  • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  • Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
  • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
  • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
  • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
  • Form and use prepositional phrases.
  • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
  • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  • Use correct capitalization.
  • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
  • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  • Choose words and phrases for effect.
  • Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written Standard English.
  • Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.
  • Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).
  • Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.
  • Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  • Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.
  • (Not applicable to literature)
  • Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
  • Recognize, interpret and make connections in narratives, poetry, and drama, to other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, personal events and situations.
  • Self-select text based upon personal preferences.
  • Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
    • Determine the meaning of general academic and domain specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

 

  • Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  • Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
  • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
  • Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  • By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
  • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multi syllabic words in context and out of context.
  • Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
Writing Standards
    • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
      • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
      • Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
      • Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
      • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

    • Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
      • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
      • Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
      • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
      • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

  • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  • Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
  • Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
  • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  • With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  • Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
  • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).
  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
  • Create and present a poem, narrative, play, art work, or literary review in response to a particular author or theme studied.
Mathematics | Grade 4

In Grade 4, instructional time should focus on three critical areas:

  • Developing understanding and fluency with multi-digit multiplication, and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends.
  • Developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers.
  • Understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry.

Students generalize their understanding of place value to 1,000,000, understanding the relative sizes of numbers in each place. They apply their understanding of models for multiplication (equal-sized groups, arrays, area models), place value, and properties of operations, in particular the distributive property, as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute products of multi-digit whole numbers. Depending on the numbers and the context, they select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate or mentally calculate products. They develop fluency with efficient procedures for multiplying whole numbers; understand and explain why the procedures work based on place value and properties of operations; and use them to solve problems.

Students apply their understanding of models for division, place value, properties of operations, and the relationship of division to multiplication as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable procedures to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends. They select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate and mentally calculate quotients, and interpret remainders based upon the context.

Students develop understanding of fraction equivalence and operations with fractions. They recognize that two different fractions can be equal (e.g., 15/9 = 5/3), and they develop methods for generating and recognizing equivalent fractions. Students extend previous understandings about how fractions are built from unit fractions, composing fractions from unit fractions, decomposing fractions into unit fractions, and using the meaning of fractions and the meaning of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

Students describe, analyze, compare, and classify two-dimensional shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two-dimensional shapes, students deepen their understanding of properties of two-dimensional objects and the use of them to solve problems involving symmetry.

Forth Grade Overview

  • Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.
  • Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.
  • Multiply and divide within 100.
  • Generate and analyze patterns.

Number and Operations in Base Ten

  • Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.
  • Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
  • Number and Operations—Fractions
  • Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.
  • Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.
  • Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.
  • Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.
  • Represent and interpret data.
  • Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.
  • Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.
  • Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.