• Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
    • Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.
    • Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds.
  • Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
  • Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification
    • Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
      • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
      • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
      • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
      • Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
      • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
    • Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
      • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
      • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
      • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
      • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage badge; boy boil).
      • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  • Compare formal and informal uses of English.
  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
  • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
  • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
  • Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
  • Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).
  • Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).
  • Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
  • Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
  • Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
  • Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  • Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
    (Not applicable to literature)
  • Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  • By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
  • Make connections between self, text, and the world around them (text, media, social interaction).
  • Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • Identify the main topic of a multi paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
  • Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
  • Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  • Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
  • Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
  • Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  • By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
  • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  • Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
  • Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
  • Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.
  • Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
  • Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
  • Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
  • Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
Writing Standards
  • Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.
  • (Begins in grade 3)
  • With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
  • With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
  • (begins in grade 3)
Mathematics | Grade 2

In Grade 2, instructional time should focus on four critical areas:

 

  • Extending understanding of base-ten notation.
  • Building fluency with addition and subtraction.
  • Using standard units of measure.
  • Describing and analyzing shapes.

Students extend their understanding of the base-ten system. This includes ideas of counting in fives, tens, and multiples of hundreds, tens, and ones, as well as number relationships involving these units, including comparing. Students understand multi-digit numbers (up to 1000) written in base-ten notation, recognizing that the digits in each place represent amounts of thousands, hundreds, tens, or ones (e.g., 853 is 8 hundreds + 5 tens + 3 ones).

Students use their understanding of addition to develop fluency with addition and subtraction within 100. They solve problems within 1000 by applying their understanding of models for addition and subtraction, and they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute sums and differences of whole numbers in base-ten notation, using their understanding of place value and the properties of operations. They select and accurately apply methods that are appropriate for the context and the numbers involved to mentally calculate sums and differences for numbers with only tens or only hundreds.

Students recognize the need for standard units of measure (centimeter and inch) and they use rulers and other measurement tools with the understanding that linear measure involves an iteration of units. They recognize that the smaller the unit, the more iteration they need to cover a given length.

Students describe and analyze shapes by examining their sides and angles. Students investigate, describe, and reason about decomposing and combining shapes to make other shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two- and three-dimensional shapes, students develop a foundation for understanding area, volume, congruence, similarity, and symmetry in later grades.

Second Grade Overview

  • Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.
  • Add and subtract within 20.
  • Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.

Number and Operations in Base Ten

  • Understand place value.
  • Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.
  • Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.
  • Relate addition and subtraction to length.
  • Work with time and money.
  • Represent and interpret data.

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

  • Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
  • Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
  • Model with mathematics.
  • Use appropriate tools strategically.
  • Attend to precision.
  • Look for and make use of structure.
  • Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.