• Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
    • Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
    • Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds.
  • Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.
  • Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.
  • Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.
    • Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
      • Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
      • Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
      • Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
      • Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their; anyone, everything).
      • Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
      • Use frequently occurring adjectives.
      • Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
      • Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
      • Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
      • Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
    • Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
      • Capitalize dates and names of people.
      • Use end punctuation for sentences.
      • Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
      • Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
      • Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

(Begins in grade 2)

    • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
      • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
      • Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
      • Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).
      • With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
        • Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
        • Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
        • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
        • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g. Large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by
        • Acting out the meanings.
        • Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).
  • Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.
  • Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
  • Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
  • Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.
  • Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  • Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events. (Not applicable to literature)
  • Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories. With prompting and support, students will make cultural connections to text and self.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  • With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.
  • Make connections between self, text, and the world around them (text, media, social interaction).
  • Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
  • Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
  • Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text.
  • Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

  • Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
  • Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

  • With prompting and support, read informational texts, appropriately complex for grade 1.
  • Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
  • Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending, punctuation).
  • Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
  • Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
  • Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
  • Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
  • Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).
  • Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
  • Know the spelling-sound correspondences for.
  • Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
  • Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
  • Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
  • Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
  • Read words with inflectional endings.
  • Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
  • Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
  • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
Writing Standards
  • Write opinion pieces, in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
  • Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

(Begins in grade 3)

  • With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  • Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).
  • With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • (Begins in grade 4)
  • (Begins in grade 3)
  • Responding to Literature
  • Create and present a poem, dramatization, artwork, or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class, with support as needed.
Mathematics | Grade 1

In Grade 1, instructional time should focus on four critical areas:

  • Developing understanding of addition, subtraction, and strategies for addition and subtraction within 20.
  • Developing understanding of whole number relationships and place value, including grouping in tens and ones.
  • Developing understanding of linear measurement and measuring lengths as iterating length units.
  • Reasoning about attributes of, and composing and decomposing geometric shapes.

Students develop strategies for adding and subtracting whole numbers based on their prior work with small numbers. They use a variety of models, including discrete objects and length-based models (e.g., cubes connected to form lengths), to model add-to, take-from, put-together, take-apart, and compare situations to develop meaning for the operations of addition and subtraction, and to develop strategies to solve arithmetic problems with these operations. Students understand connections between counting and addition and subtraction (e.g., adding two is the same as counting on two). They use properties of addition to add whole numbers and to create and use increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties (e.g., “making tens”) to solve addition and subtraction problems within 20. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, children build their understanding of the relationship between addition and subtraction.

Students develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to add within 100 and subtract multiples of 10. They compare whole numbers (at least to 100) to develop understanding of and solve problems involving their relative sizes. They think of whole numbers between 10 and 100 in terms of tens and ones (especially recognizing the numbers 11 to 19 as composed of a ten and some ones). Through activities that build number sense, they understand the order of the counting numbers and their relative magnitudes.

Students develop an understanding of the meaning and processes of measurement, including underlying concepts such as iterating (the mental activity of building up the length of an object with equal-sized units) and the transitivity principle for indirect measurement.

Students compose and decompose plane or solid figures (e.g., put two triangles together to make a quadrilateral) and build understanding of part-whole relationships as well as the properties of the original and composite shapes. As they combine shapes, they recognize them from different perspectives and orientations, describe their geometric attributes, and determine how they are alike and different, to develop the background for measurement and for initial understandings of properties such as congruence and symmetry.

First Grade Overview

  • Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.
  • Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
  • Add and subtract within 20.
  • Work with addition and subtraction equations.

Number and Operations in Base Ten

  • Extend the counting sequence.
  • Understand and Use place value
  • Understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.
  • Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.
  • Tell and write time.
  • Represent and interpret data.
  • Reason with shapes and their attributes.
  • Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
  • Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
  • Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
  • Model with mathematics.
  • Use appropriate tools strategically.
  • Attend to precision.
  • Look for and make use of structure.
  • Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.